Atlas de Anatomia do Corpo Humano - Central

The atlas of human body

Taste Buds
Taste Buds

Small sensory organs which contain gustatory receptor cells, basal cells, and supporting cells. Taste buds in humans are found in the epithelia of the tongue, palate, and pharynx. They are innervated by the CHORDA TYMPANI NERVE (a branch of the facial nerve) and the GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE.

Olfactory Receptor Neurons
Olfactory Receptor Neurons

Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.

Photoreceptors
Photoreceptors

Cells specialized to detect and transduce light.

Rods (Retina)
Rods (Retina)

One of the two photoreceptor cell types of the vertebrate retina. In rods the photopigment is in stacks of membranous disks separate from the outer cell membrane. Rods are more sensitive to light than cones, but rod mediated vision has less spatial and temporal resolution than cone vision.

Cones (Retina)
Cones (Retina)

One of the two photoreceptor cell types in the vertebrate retina. In cones the photopigment is in invaginations of the cell membrane of the outer segment. Cones are less sensitive to light than rods, but they provide vision with higher spatial and temporal acuity, and the combination of signals from cones with different pigments allows color vision.

Mechanoreceptors
Mechanoreceptors

Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptors include HAIR CELLS, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.

Pacinian Corpuscles
Pacinian Corpuscles

Rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors found in subcutaneous tissue beneath both hairy and glabrous skin. Pacinian corpuscles contain an afferent nerve fiber surrounded by a capsule with multiple concentric layers. They have large receptive fields and are most sensitive to high-frequency stimuli, such as vibration.

Merkel Cells
Merkel Cells

Modified epidermal cells located in the stratum basale. They are found mostly in areas where sensory perception is acute, such as the fingertips. Merkel cells are closely associated with an expanded terminal bulb of an afferent myelinated nerve fiber. Do not confuse with Merkel's corpuscle which is a combination of a neuron and an epidermal cell. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell;

Nociceptors
Nociceptors

Peripheral receptors for pain. Nociceptors include receptors which are sensitive to painful mechanical stimuli, extreme heat or cold, and chemical stimuli. All nociceptors are free nerve endings.

Aortic Bodies
Aortic Bodies

Small clusters of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the ARCH OF THE AORTA; the PULMONARY ARTERIES; and the coronary arteries. The aortic bodies sense PH; CARBON DIOXIDE; and oxygen concentrations in the BLOOD and participate in the control of RESPIRATION. The aortic bodies should not be confused with the PARA-AORTIC BODIES in the abdomen (which are sometimes also called aortic bodies).

Carotid Body
Carotid Body

A small cluster of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery. The carotid body, which is richly supplied with fenestrated capillaries, senses the pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and plays a crucial role in their homeostatic control.

Glomus Tympanicum
Glomus Tympanicum

A highly vascular ovoid body of chemoreceptive tissue lying adjacent to the TYMPANIC CAVITY. It is derived from NEURAL CREST tissue and is considered part of the diffuse neuroendocrine system. It is the site of a rare neoplasm called a GLOMUS TYMPANICUM TUMOR.

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