Atlas de Anatomia do Corpo Humano - Central

The atlas of human body

Taste Buds
Taste Buds

Small sensory organs which contain gustatory receptor cells, basal cells, and supporting cells. Taste buds in humans are found in the epithelia of the tongue, palate, and pharynx. They are innervated by the CHORDA TYMPANI NERVE (a branch of the facial nerve) and the GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE.

Olfactory Receptor Neurons
Olfactory Receptor Neurons

Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.

Pineal Gland
Pineal Gland

A light-sensitive neuroendocrine organ attached to the roof of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain. The pineal gland secretes MELATONIN, other biogenic amines, and neuropeptides.

Pituitary Gland
Pituitary Gland

A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk.

Pituitary Gland, Posterior
Pituitary Gland, Posterior

Neural tissue of the pituitary gland, also known as the neurohypophysis. It consists of the distal AXONS of neurons that produce VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN in the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS and the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS. These axons travel down through the MEDIAN EMINENCE, the hypothalamic infundibulum of the PITUITARY STALK, to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.

Pituitary Gland, Anterior
Pituitary Gland, Anterior

The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.

Lactotrophs
Lactotrophs

Anterior pituitary cells that produce PROLACTIN.

Pituitary Gland, Intermediate
Pituitary Gland, Intermediate

The intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. It shows considerable size variation among the species, small in humans, and large in amphibians and lower vertebrates. This lobe produces mainly MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES and other peptides from post-translational processing of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC).

Neurosecretory Systems
Neurosecretory Systems

A system of neurons that has the specialized function to produce and secrete hormones, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an endocrine organ or system.

Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System
Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System

A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.

Median Eminence
Median Eminence

Raised area at the infundibular region of the HYPOTHALAMUS at the floor of the BRAIN, ventral to the THIRD VENTRICLE and adjacent to the ARCUATE NUCLEUS. It contains the terminals of hypothalamic neurons and the capillary network of hypophyseal portal system, thus serving as a neuroendocrine link between the brain and the PITUITARY GLAND.

Blood-Nerve Barrier
Blood-Nerve Barrier

The barrier between the perineurium of PERIPHERAL NERVES and the endothelium (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR) of endoneurial CAPILLARIES. The perineurium acts as a diffusion barrier, but ion permeability at the blood-nerve barrier is still higher than at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. Capillary Permeability;

Nervous System
Nervous System

The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)

Central Nervous System
Central Nervous System

The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.

Brain
Brain

The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.

Diencephalon
Diencephalon

The paired caudal parts of the prosencephalon from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.

Hypothalamus
Hypothalamus

Ventral part of the diencephalon extending from the region of the optic chiasm to the caudal border of the mammillary bodies and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the third ventricle.

Hypothalamus, Anterior
Hypothalamus, Anterior

The front portion of the HYPOTHALAMUS separated into the preoptic region and the supraoptic region. The preoptic region is made up of the periventricular gray matter of the rostral portion of the third ventricle and contains the preoptic ventricular nucleus and the medial preoptic nucleus. The supraoptic region contains the PARAVENTRICULAR HYPOTHALAMIC NUCLEUS, the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS, the ANTERIOR HYPOTHALAMIC NUCLEUS, and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS.

Preoptic Area
Preoptic Area

Region of hypothalamus between the anterior commissure and optic chiasm.

Hypothalamus, Middle
Hypothalamus, Middle

That middle portion of the hypothalamus containing the arcuate, dorsomedial, and ventromedial nuclei, and the tuber cinereum. The pituitary gland can also be considered part of the middle hypothalamic region.

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