Atlas de Anatomia do Corpo Humano - Central

The atlas of human body

Mouth
Mouth

The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts

Esophageal Sphincter, Upper
Esophageal Sphincter, Upper

The structure at the pharyngoesophageal junction consisting chiefly of the cricopharyngeus muscle. It normally occludes the lumen of the ESOPHAGUS, except during SWALLOWING.

Esophageal Sphincter, Lower
Esophageal Sphincter, Lower

The physiologic or functional barrier to GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX at the esophagogastric junction. Sphincteric muscles remain tonically contracted during the resting state and form the high-pressure zone separating the lumen of the ESOPHAGUS from that of the STOMACH. (Haubrich et al, Bockus Gastroenterology, 5th ed., pp399, 415)

Digestive System
Digestive System

A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).

Biliary Tract
Biliary Tract

The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.

Bile Ducts
Bile Ducts

The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.

Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic
Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic

Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.

Bile Canaliculi
Bile Canaliculi

Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.

Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic
Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic

Passages external to the liver for the conveyance of bile. These include the COMMON BILE DUCT and the common hepatic duct (HEPATIC DUCT, COMMON).

Common Bile Duct
Common Bile Duct

The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.

Ampulla of Vater
Ampulla of Vater

A dilation of the duodenal papilla that is the opening of the juncture of the COMMON BILE DUCT and the MAIN PANCREATIC DUCT, also known as the hepatopancreatic ampulla.

Sphincter of Oddi
Sphincter of Oddi

The sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla within the duodenal papilla. The COMMON BILE DUCT and main pancreatic duct pass through this sphincter.

Cystic Duct
Cystic Duct

The duct that is connected to the GALLBLADDER and allows the emptying of bile into the COMMON BILE DUCT.

Hepatic Duct, Common
Hepatic Duct, Common

Predominantly extrahepatic bile duct which is formed by the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts, which are predominantly intrahepatic, and, in turn, joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct.

Gallbladder
Gallbladder

A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.

Intestines
Intestines

The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.

Intestinal Mucosa
Intestinal Mucosa

Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.

Paneth Cells
Paneth Cells

Differentiated epithelial cells of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA, found in the basal part of the intestinal crypts of Lieberkuhn. Paneth cells secrete GROWTH FACTORS, digestive enzymes such as LYSOZYME and antimicrobial peptides such as cryptdins (ALPHA-DEFENSINS) into the crypt lumen.

Goblet Cells
Goblet Cells

A glandular epithelial cell or a unicellular gland. Goblet cells secrete MUCUS. They are scattered in the epithelial linings of many organs, especially the SMALL INTESTINE and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.

Intestine, Large
Intestine, Large

A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.

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