Atlas de Anatomia do Corpo Humano - Central

The atlas of human body

Enterochromaffin Cells
Enterochromaffin Cells

A subtype of enteroendocrine cells found in the gastrointestinal MUCOSA, particularly in the glands of PYLORIC ANTRUM; DUODENUM; and ILEUM. These cells secrete mainly SEROTONIN and some neuropeptides. Their secretory granules stain readily with silver (argentaffin stain). Enterochromaffin-like Cells;

Islets of Langerhans
Islets of Langerhans

Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.

Insulin-Secreting Cells
Insulin-Secreting Cells

A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.

Ovary
Ovary

The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts

Ovarian Follicle
Ovarian Follicle

An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages

Granulosa Cells
Granulosa Cells

Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).

Corpus Luteum
Corpus Luteum

The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.

Luteal Cells
Luteal Cells

PROGESTERONE-producing cells in the CORPUS LUTEUM. The large luteal cells derive from the GRANULOSA CELLS. The small luteal cells derive from the THECA CELLS.

Testis
Testis

The male gonad containing two functional parts

Leydig Cells
Leydig Cells

Steroid-producing cells in the interstitial tissue of the TESTIS. They are under the regulation of PITUITARY HORMONES; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. TESTOSTERONE is the major androgen (ANDROGENS) produced.

Gonads
Gonads

The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.

Endocrine System
Endocrine System

The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.

Chromaffin System
Chromaffin System

The cells of the body which stain with chromium salts. They occur along the sympathetic nerves, in the adrenal gland, and in various other organs.

Chromaffin Cells
Chromaffin Cells

Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.

Para-Aortic Bodies
Para-Aortic Bodies

Small masses of chromaffin cells found near the SYMPATHETIC GANGLIA along the ABDOMINAL AORTA, beginning cranial to the superior mesenteric artery (MESENTERIC ARTERY, SUPERIOR) or renal arteries and extending to the level of the aortic bifurcation or just beyond. They are also called the organs of Zuckerkandl and sometimes called aortic bodies (not to be confused with AORTIC BODIES in the THORAX). The para-aortic bodies are the dominant source of CATECHOLAMINES in the FETUS and normally regress after BIRTH.

Enteroendocrine Cells
Enteroendocrine Cells

Cells found throughout the lining of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that contain and secrete regulatory PEPTIDE HORMONES and/or BIOGENIC AMINES.

Endocrine Glands
Endocrine Glands

Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.

Adrenal Cortex
Adrenal Cortex

The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.

Pineal Gland
Pineal Gland

A light-sensitive neuroendocrine organ attached to the roof of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain. The pineal gland secretes MELATONIN, other biogenic amines, and neuropeptides.

Pituitary Gland
Pituitary Gland

A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk.

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