Atlas de Anatomia do Corpo Humano - Central

The atlas of human body

Islets of Langerhans
Islets of Langerhans

Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.

Insulin-Secreting Cells
Insulin-Secreting Cells

A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.

Ovary
Ovary

The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts

Ovarian Follicle
Ovarian Follicle

An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages

Granulosa Cells
Granulosa Cells

Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).

Corpus Luteum
Corpus Luteum

The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.

Luteal Cells
Luteal Cells

PROGESTERONE-producing cells in the CORPUS LUTEUM. The large luteal cells derive from the GRANULOSA CELLS. The small luteal cells derive from the THECA CELLS.

Testis
Testis

The male gonad containing two functional parts

Leydig Cells
Leydig Cells

Steroid-producing cells in the interstitial tissue of the TESTIS. They are under the regulation of PITUITARY HORMONES; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. TESTOSTERONE is the major androgen (ANDROGENS) produced.

Gonads
Gonads

The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.

Endocrine Glands
Endocrine Glands

Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.

Adrenal Glands
Adrenal Glands

A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.

Adrenal Cortex
Adrenal Cortex

The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.

Adrenal Medulla
Adrenal Medulla

The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.

Pineal Gland
Pineal Gland

A light-sensitive neuroendocrine organ attached to the roof of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain. The pineal gland secretes MELATONIN, other biogenic amines, and neuropeptides.

Pituitary Gland
Pituitary Gland

A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk.

Pituitary Gland, Anterior
Pituitary Gland, Anterior

The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.

Lactotrophs
Lactotrophs

Anterior pituitary cells that produce PROLACTIN.

Pituitary Gland, Intermediate
Pituitary Gland, Intermediate

The intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. It shows considerable size variation among the species, small in humans, and large in amphibians and lower vertebrates. This lobe produces mainly MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES and other peptides from post-translational processing of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC).

Thyroid Gland
Thyroid Gland

A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.

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