Atlas de Anatomia do Corpo Humano - Central

The atlas of human body

Ovum
Ovum

A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.

Zygote
Zygote

The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.

Umbilical Arteries
Umbilical Arteries

Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.

Pericytes
Pericytes

Unique slender cells with multiple processes extending along the capillary vessel axis and encircling the vascular wall, also called mural cells. Pericytes are imbedded in the BASEMENT MEMBRANE shared with the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS of the vessel. Pericytes are important in maintaining vessel integrity, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling.

Umbilical Veins
Umbilical Veins

Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.

Fetal Heart
Fetal Heart

The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.

Ductus Arteriosus
Ductus Arteriosus

A fetal blood vessel connecting the pulmonary artery with the descending aorta.

Truncus Arteriosus
Truncus Arteriosus

The arterial trunk arising from the fetal heart. During development, it divides into AORTA and the PULMONARY ARTERY.

Endocardial Cushions
Endocardial Cushions

A fetal heart structure that is the bulging areas in the cardiac septum between the HEART ATRIA and the HEART VENTRICLES. During development, growth and fusion of endocardial cushions at midline forms the two atrioventricular canals, the sites for future TRICUSPID VALVE and BICUSPID VALVE.

Extraembryonic Membranes
Extraembryonic Membranes

The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.

Chorion
Chorion

The outermost extra-embryonic membrane surrounding the developing embryo. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it adheres to the shell and allows exchange of gases between the egg and its environment. In MAMMALS, the chorion evolves into the fetal contribution of the PLACENTA. Chorioallantoic Membrane;

Blastomeres
Blastomeres

Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.

Trophoblasts
Trophoblasts

Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).

Vernix Caseosa
Vernix Caseosa

An unctuous substance composed of sebum and desquamated epithelial cells, which covers the skin of the fetus.

Fetal Blood
Fetal Blood

Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.

Meconium
Meconium

The thick green-to-black mucilaginous material found in the intestines of a full-term fetus. It consists of secretions of the INTESTINAL GLANDS; BILE PIGMENTS; FATTY ACIDS; AMNIOTIC FLUID; and intrauterine debris. It constitutes the first stools passed by a newborn.

Cleavage Stage, Ovum
Cleavage Stage, Ovum

The earliest developmental stage of a fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) during which there are several mitotic divisions within the ZONA PELLUCIDA. Each cleavage or segmentation yields two BLASTOMERES of about half size of the parent cell. This cleavage stage generally covers the period up to 16-cell MORULA. Cell Division;

Blastocyst
Blastocyst

A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.

Gastrula
Gastrula

The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.

Fetus
Fetus

The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.

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