Atlas de Anatomia do Corpo Humano - Central

The atlas of human body

Pineal Gland
Pineal Gland

A light-sensitive neuroendocrine organ attached to the roof of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain. The pineal gland secretes MELATONIN, other biogenic amines, and neuropeptides.

Pituitary Gland
Pituitary Gland

A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk.

Pituitary Gland, Anterior
Pituitary Gland, Anterior

The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.

Lactotrophs
Lactotrophs

Anterior pituitary cells that produce PROLACTIN.

Pituitary Gland, Intermediate
Pituitary Gland, Intermediate

The intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. It shows considerable size variation among the species, small in humans, and large in amphibians and lower vertebrates. This lobe produces mainly MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES and other peptides from post-translational processing of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC).

Central Nervous System
Central Nervous System

The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.

Brain
Brain

The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.

Diencephalon
Diencephalon

The paired caudal parts of the prosencephalon from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.

Hypothalamus
Hypothalamus

Ventral part of the diencephalon extending from the region of the optic chiasm to the caudal border of the mammillary bodies and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the third ventricle.

Preoptic Area
Preoptic Area

Region of hypothalamus between the anterior commissure and optic chiasm.

Arcuate Nucleus
Arcuate Nucleus

A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.

Habenula
Habenula

A small protuberance at the dorsal, posterior corner of the wall of the third ventricle, adjacent to the dorsal thalamus and pineal body. It contains the habenular nuclei and is a major part of the epithalamus. (From Lockard, Desk Reference for Neuroscience, 2nd ed, p121)

Thalamus
Thalamus

Paired bodies containing mostly gray substance and forming part of the lateral wall of the third ventricle of the brain. The thalamus represents the major portion of the diencephalon and is commonly divided into cellular aggregates known as nuclear groups.

Geniculate Bodies
Geniculate Bodies

Part of the diencephalon inferior to the caudal end of the dorsal thalamus. Includes the lateral geniculate body which relays visual impulses from the optic tract to the calcarine cortex, and the medial geniculate body which relays auditory impulses from the lateral lemniscus to the auditory cortex.

Fornix, Brain
Fornix, Brain

Heavily myelinated fiber bundle of the TELENCEPHALON projecting from the hippocampal formation to the HYPOTHALAMUS. Some authorities consider the fornix part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM. The fimbria starts as a flattened band of axons arising from the subiculum and HIPPOCAMPUS, which then thickens to form the fornix.

Olfactory Pathways
Olfactory Pathways

Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; olfactory tract, olfactory tubercle, anterior perforated substance, and olfactory cortex. The term rhinencephalon is restricted to structures in the CNS receiving fibers from the olfactory bulb.

Olfactory Bulb
Olfactory Bulb

Ovoid body resting on the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone where the olfactory nerve terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose dendrites the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.

Corpus Callosum
Corpus Callosum

Broad plate of dense myelinated fibers that reciprocally interconnect regions of the cortex in all lobes with corresponding regions of the opposite hemisphere. The corpus callosum is located deep in the longitudinal fissure.

Cerebrum
Cerebrum

Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.

Cerebral Cortex
Cerebral Cortex

The thin layer of gray matter on the surface of the cerebral hemisphere that develops from the telencephalon and folds into gyri. It reaches its highest development in man and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.

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