Atlas de Anatomia do Corpo Humano - Central

The atlas of human body

Taste Buds
Taste Buds

Small sensory organs which contain gustatory receptor cells, basal cells, and supporting cells. Taste buds in humans are found in the epithelia of the tongue, palate, and pharynx. They are innervated by the CHORDA TYMPANI NERVE (a branch of the facial nerve) and the GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE.

Olfactory Receptor Neurons
Olfactory Receptor Neurons

Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.

Blood-Nerve Barrier
Blood-Nerve Barrier

The barrier between the perineurium of PERIPHERAL NERVES and the endothelium (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR) of endoneurial CAPILLARIES. The perineurium acts as a diffusion barrier, but ion permeability at the blood-nerve barrier is still higher than at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. Capillary Permeability;

Ganglia, Autonomic
Ganglia, Autonomic

Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia.

Ganglia, Sympathetic
Ganglia, Sympathetic

Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.

Ganglia, Parasympathetic
Ganglia, Parasympathetic

Ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system, including the ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, and otic ganglia in the cranial region and intrinsic (terminal) ganglia associated with target organs in the thorax and abdomen.

Ganglia, Sensory
Ganglia, Sensory

Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.

Trigeminal Ganglion
Trigeminal Ganglion

The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.

Myelin Sheath
Myelin Sheath

The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.

Schwann Cells
Schwann Cells

Neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system which form the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons.

Ranvier's Nodes
Ranvier's Nodes

Regularly spaced gaps in the myelin sheaths of peripheral axons. Ranvier's nodes allow saltatory conduction, that is, jumping of impulses from node to node, which is faster and more energetically favorable than continuous conduction.

Photoreceptors
Photoreceptors

Cells specialized to detect and transduce light.

Rods (Retina)
Rods (Retina)

One of the two photoreceptor cell types of the vertebrate retina. In rods the photopigment is in stacks of membranous disks separate from the outer cell membrane. Rods are more sensitive to light than cones, but rod mediated vision has less spatial and temporal resolution than cone vision.

Cones (Retina)
Cones (Retina)

One of the two photoreceptor cell types in the vertebrate retina. In cones the photopigment is in invaginations of the cell membrane of the outer segment. Cones are less sensitive to light than rods, but they provide vision with higher spatial and temporal acuity, and the combination of signals from cones with different pigments allows color vision.

Peripheral Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System

The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors. Neural Pathways;

Vagus Nerve
Vagus Nerve

The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).

Neuroeffector Junction
Neuroeffector Junction

The synapse between a neuron (presynaptic) and an effector cell other than another neuron (postsynaptic). Neuroeffector junctions include synapses onto muscles and onto secretory cells.

Neuromuscular Junction
Neuromuscular Junction

The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.

Mechanoreceptors
Mechanoreceptors

Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptors include HAIR CELLS, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.

Pacinian Corpuscles
Pacinian Corpuscles

Rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors found in subcutaneous tissue beneath both hairy and glabrous skin. Pacinian corpuscles contain an afferent nerve fiber surrounded by a capsule with multiple concentric layers. They have large receptive fields and are most sensitive to high-frequency stimuli, such as vibration.

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