Atlas de Anatomia do Corpo Humano - Central

The atlas of human body

Blood-Nerve Barrier
Blood-Nerve Barrier

The barrier between the perineurium of PERIPHERAL NERVES and the endothelium (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR) of endoneurial CAPILLARIES. The perineurium acts as a diffusion barrier, but ion permeability at the blood-nerve barrier is still higher than at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. Capillary Permeability;

Trigeminal Ganglion
Trigeminal Ganglion

The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.

Myelin Sheath
Myelin Sheath

The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.

Schwann Cells
Schwann Cells

Neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system which form the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons.

Ranvier's Nodes
Ranvier's Nodes

Regularly spaced gaps in the myelin sheaths of peripheral axons. Ranvier's nodes allow saltatory conduction, that is, jumping of impulses from node to node, which is faster and more energetically favorable than continuous conduction.

Vagus Nerve
Vagus Nerve

The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).

Laryngeal Nerves
Laryngeal Nerves

Branches of the VAGUS NERVE. The superior laryngeal nerves originate near the nodose ganglion and separate into external branches, which supply motor fibers to the cricothyroid muscles, and internal branches, which carry sensory fibers. The RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE originates more caudally and carries efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid. The laryngeal nerves and their various branches also carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.

Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve
Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve

Branches of the vagus (tenth cranial) nerve. The recurrent laryngeal nerves originate more caudally than the superior laryngeal nerves and follow different paths on the right and left sides. They carry efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid and carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.

Peripheral Nerves
Peripheral Nerves

The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.

Cranial Nerves
Cranial Nerves

Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.

Trochlear Nerve
Trochlear Nerve

The 4th cranial nerve. The trochlear nerve carries the motor innervation of the superior oblique muscles of the eye.

Glossopharyngeal Nerve
Glossopharyngeal Nerve

The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and chemoreceptors of the carotid sinus.

Olfactory Nerve
Olfactory Nerve

The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.

Optic Nerve
Optic Nerve

The 2nd cranial nerve. The optic nerve conveys visual information from the retina to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the retinal ganglion cells which sort at the optic chiasm and continue via the optic tracts to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other important targets include the superior colliculi and the suprachiasmatic nuclei. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the central nervous system.

Optic Disk
Optic Disk

The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.

Optic Chiasm
Optic Chiasm

The X-shaped structure formed by the meeting of the two optic nerves. At the optic chiasm the fibers from the medial part of each retina cross to project to the other side of the brain while the lateral retinal fibers continue on the same side. As a result each half of the brain receives information about the contralateral visual field from both eyes.

Oculomotor Nerve
Oculomotor Nerve

The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.

Accessory Nerve
Accessory Nerve

The 11th cranial nerve. The accessory nerve originates from neurons in the medulla and in the cervical spinal cord. It has a cranial root, which joins the vagus (10th cranial) nerve and sends motor fibers to the muscles of the larynx, and a spinal root, which sends motor fibers to the trapezius and the sternocleidomastoid muscles. Damage to the nerve produces weakness in head rotation and shoulder elevation.

Hypoglossal Nerve
Hypoglossal Nerve

The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.

Abducens Nerve
Abducens Nerve

The 6th cranial nerve. The abducens nerve originates in the abducens nucleus of the pons and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the eye. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.

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