Atlas de Anatomia do Corpo Humano - Central

The atlas of human body

Esophageal Sphincter, Upper
Esophageal Sphincter, Upper

The structure at the pharyngoesophageal junction consisting chiefly of the cricopharyngeus muscle. It normally occludes the lumen of the ESOPHAGUS, except during SWALLOWING.

Esophageal Sphincter, Lower
Esophageal Sphincter, Lower

The physiologic or functional barrier to GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX at the esophagogastric junction. Sphincteric muscles remain tonically contracted during the resting state and form the high-pressure zone separating the lumen of the ESOPHAGUS from that of the STOMACH. (Haubrich et al, Bockus Gastroenterology, 5th ed., pp399, 415)

Ampulla of Vater
Ampulla of Vater

A dilation of the duodenal papilla that is the opening of the juncture of the COMMON BILE DUCT and the MAIN PANCREATIC DUCT, also known as the hepatopancreatic ampulla.

Sphincter of Oddi
Sphincter of Oddi

The sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla within the duodenal papilla. The COMMON BILE DUCT and main pancreatic duct pass through this sphincter.

Duodenum
Duodenum

The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.

Upper Gastrointestinal Tract
Upper Gastrointestinal Tract

The segment of GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the ESOPHAGUS; the STOMACH; and the DUODENUM.

Stomach
Stomach

An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.

Esophagogastric Junction
Esophagogastric Junction

The area covering the terminal portion of ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of STOMACH at the cardiac orifice.

Parietal Cells, Gastric
Parietal Cells, Gastric

Rounded or pyramidal cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS. They secrete HYDROCHLORIC ACID and produce gastric intrinsic factor, a glycoprotein that binds VITAMIN B12. Gastric Acid; Intrinsic Factor;

Chief Cells, Gastric
Chief Cells, Gastric

Epithelial cells that line the basal half of the GASTRIC GLANDS. Chief cells synthesize and export an inactive enzyme PEPSINOGEN which is converted into the highly proteolytic enzyme PEPSIN in the acid environment of the STOMACH.

Enterochromaffin Cells
Enterochromaffin Cells

A subtype of enteroendocrine cells found in the gastrointestinal MUCOSA, particularly in the glands of PYLORIC ANTRUM; DUODENUM; and ILEUM. These cells secrete mainly SEROTONIN and some neuropeptides. Their secretory granules stain readily with silver (argentaffin stain). Enterochromaffin-like Cells;

Gastric Fundus
Gastric Fundus

The superior portion of the body of the stomach above the level of the cardiac notch.

Cardia
Cardia

That part of the STOMACH close to the opening from ESOPHAGUS into the stomach (cardiac orifice), the ESOPHAGOGASTRIC JUNCTION. The cardia is so named because of its closeness to the HEART. Cardia is characterized by the lack of acid-forming cells (GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS).

Pyloric Antrum
Pyloric Antrum

The region between the sharp indentation at the lower third of the STOMACH (incisura angularis) and the junction of the PYLORUS with the DUODENUM. Pyloric antral glands contain mucus-secreting cells and gastrin-secreting endocrine cells (G CELLS).

Pylorus
Pylorus

The region of the STOMACH at the junction with the DUODENUM. It is marked by the thickening of circular muscle layers forming the pyloric sphincter to control the opening and closure of the lumen. Gastric Emptying;

Esophagus
Esophagus

The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.

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