Atlas de Anatomia do Corpo Humano - Central

The atlas of human body

Myofibrils
Myofibrils

Highly organized bundles of actin (=ACTINS), MYOSINS, and other proteins in the cytoplasm of skeletal and cardiac muscle cells that contract by a sliding filament mechanism.

Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of skeletal muscles that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.

Acrosome
Acrosome

The cap-like structure covering the anterior portion of SPERM HEAD. Acrosome, derived from LYSOSOMES, is a membrane-bound organelle that contains the required hydrolytic and proteolytic enzymes necessary for sperm penetration of the egg in FERTILIZATION. Acrosome Reaction;

Glomerular Basement Membrane
Glomerular Basement Membrane

The layer of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX that lies between the ENDOTHELIUM of the glomerular capillaries and the PODOCYTES of the inner or visceral layer of the BOWMAN CAPSULE. It is the product of these two cell types. It acts as a physical barrier and an ion-selective filter. Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Disease;

Myelin Sheath
Myelin Sheath

The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.

Ranvier's Nodes
Ranvier's Nodes

Regularly spaced gaps in the myelin sheaths of peripheral axons. Ranvier's nodes allow saltatory conduction, that is, jumping of impulses from node to node, which is faster and more energetically favorable than continuous conduction.

Dendrites
Dendrites

Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.

Dendritic Spines
Dendritic Spines

Spiny processes on DENDRITES, each of which receives excitatory input from one nerve ending (NERVE ENDINGS). They are commonly found on PURKINJE CELLS and PYRAMIDAL CELLS.

Axons
Axons

Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.

Neurofibrils
Neurofibrils

The delicate interlacing threads, formed by aggregations of neurofilaments and neurotubules, coursing through the cytoplasm of the body of a neuron and extending from one dendrite into another or into the axon.

Neurofibrillary Tangles
Neurofibrillary Tangles

Abnormal structures located in various parts of the brain and composed of dense arrays of paired helical filaments (neurofilaments and microtubules). These double helical stacks of transverse subunits are twisted into left-handed ribbon-like filaments that likely incorporate the following proteins

Nissl Bodies
Nissl Bodies

Subcellular structures found in nerve cell bodies and DENDRITES. They consist of granular endoplasmic reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH) and RIBOSOMES.

Neuroeffector Junction
Neuroeffector Junction

The synapse between a neuron (presynaptic) and an effector cell other than another neuron (postsynaptic). Neuroeffector junctions include synapses onto muscles and onto secretory cells.

Neuromuscular Junction
Neuromuscular Junction

The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.

Synaptic Membranes
Synaptic Membranes

Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.

Heinz Bodies
Heinz Bodies

Abnormal intracellular inclusions, composed of denatured hemoglobin, found on the membrane of red blood cells. They are seen in thalassemias, enzymopathies, hemoglobinopathies, and after splenectomy.

Cellular Structures
Cellular Structures

Components of a cell.

Cell Membrane
Cell Membrane

The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

Cell Membrane Structures
Cell Membrane Structures

Structures which are part of the CELL MEMBRANE or have cell membrane as a major part of their structure.

Tight Junctions
Tight Junctions

Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)

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