Atlas de Anatomia do Corpo Humano - Central

The atlas of human body

Ear, Inner
Ear, Inner

The essential part of the hearing organ consists of two labyrinthine compartments

Cochlea
Cochlea

The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.

Round Window, Ear
Round Window, Ear

Fenestra of the cochlea, an opening in the basal wall between the MIDDLE EAR and the INNER EAR, leading to the cochlea. It is closed by a secondary tympanic membrane.

Cochlear Duct
Cochlear Duct

A spiral tube that is firmly suspended in the bony shell-shaped part of the cochlea. This ENDOLYMPH-filled cochlear duct begins at the vestibule and makes 2.5 turns around a core of spongy bone (the modiolus) thus dividing the PERILYMPH-filled spiral canal into two channels, the SCALA VESTIBULI and the SCALA TYMPANI.

Tectorial Membrane
Tectorial Membrane

A membrane, attached to the bony SPIRAL LAMINA, overlying and coupling with the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI in the inner ear. It is a glycoprotein-rich keratin-like layer containing fibrils embedded in a dense amorphous substance.

Basilar Membrane
Basilar Membrane

A basement membrane in the cochlea that supports the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, consisting keratin-like fibrils. It stretches from the SPIRAL LAMINA to the basilar crest. The movement of fluid in the cochlea, induced by sound, causes displacement of the basilar membrane and subsequent stimulation of the attached hair cells which transform the mechanical signal into neural activity.

Semicircular Canals
Semicircular Canals

Three long canals (anterior, posterior, and lateral) of the bony labyrinth. They are set at right angles to each other and are situated posterosuperior to the vestibule of the bony labyrinth (VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH). The semicircular canals have five openings into the vestibule with one shared by the anterior and the posterior canals. Within the canals are the SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS.

Semicircular Ducts
Semicircular Ducts

The three membranous semicircular ducts within the bony semicircular canals. They open into the UTRICLE through five openings. Each duct has at one end a sensory area called the ampullary crest. AMPULLARY HAIR CELLS of the crests sense the movement of ENDOLYMPH resulting from rotation of the head.

Vestibule, Labyrinth
Vestibule, Labyrinth

An oval, bony chamber of the inner ear, part of the bony labyrinth. It is continuous with bony COCHLEA anteriorly, and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS posteriorly. The vestibule contains two communicating sacs (utricle and saccule) of the balancing apparatus. The oval window on its lateral wall is occupied by the base of the STAPES of the MIDDLE EAR.

Oval Window, Ear
Oval Window, Ear

Fenestra or oval opening on the lateral wall of the vestibular labyrinth adjacent to the MIDDLE EAR. It is located above the cochlear round window and normally covered by the base of the STAPES.

Endolymphatic Duct
Endolymphatic Duct

The part of the membranous labyrinth that traverses the bony vestibular aqueduct and emerges through the bone of posterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR) where it expands into a blind pouch called the endolymphatic sac.

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